SIP CHAP 1-3

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Description

Phytochemical Screening of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract as Natural Termiticide

Science Investigatory Project

Presented to The Science Technology Engineering Department Jacinto P. Elpa National High School Tandag City, Surigao Del Sur In Partial fulfillment of Requirements for Research I Life Science Category

Researchers: Abala, Prince Gabbro L. Lopez, Jammarvic G. Giron, Franco Miguel E.

Research Adviser Ana Geran V. Millan SY. 2020-2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page Abstract Table of Contents Definition of Key Terms CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study B. Statement of the Problem C. Research Objectives D. Statement of the Null Hypothesis E. Significance of the Study F. Scope and Limitations G. Conceptual Framework CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES Related Studies CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS Research Design Chemicals and Reagents Plant Materials

Data Gathering Procedure Plant extraction and solution Phytochemical Screening Flowchart of the Study CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion Recommendation REFERENCES CITED PICTORIALS APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE RESEARCHERS’ LOGBOOK FORMS AND CERTIFICATES

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS In order to understand this study, the following terms are operationally defined: The following terms are defined to provide clarity and a better understanding of the words frequently used in the following pages: Biodegradation - is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. Biopesticides - a contraction of 'biological pesticides,’ include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. Insecticide - chemicals used to control insects by killing them or preventing them from engaging in undesirable or destructive behaviors. Polyphagous- feeding on many different kinds of food. Sampaliya - a kind of vegetable that is bitter in taste and resembles a small cucumber shape. Termites- any of numerous pale-colored soft-bodied social insects (order Isoptera) that live in colonies usually consisting of winged sexual forms, wingless sterile workers, and soldiers, feed on wood and include some which are very destructive to wooden structures and trees. Termiticide - is any pesticide product registered with the state chemist when used to control, suppress, or prevent termites.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A.

Background of the study Termites are highly destructive polyphagous pests, which largely damage plants,

agricultural and fodder crops in the Philippines. Biodegradation of wood caused by termites is recognized as one of the most serious problems for wood utilization. Termites cause tremendous losses to finish and unfinished wooden structures in buildings, besides loss in agriculture and forestry crops (Alshehrry, Hassan, 2014). Termites mainly feed on dead plant materials, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. About 10% of the estimated 4000 species of the insect are economically significant as pests that can cause severe structural damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests. (Osipitan, Oseyemi 2012) reported that wood feeders, especially Coptotermes curvignathus are the main termite species that infests palm plantations and living agricultural plants. They are a prime example of insects that display decentralized, self-organized systems, swarm intelligence, and cooperation among colony members to exploit food sources and environments that could not be available to any single insect acting alone. An earlier study tested many plant extracts for subterranean termites, which our study will not do for we will be focusing on one plant, which is the Sampaliya. We will not be using subterranean termites as well, but research might be conducted in the future. Also, no study was conducted about phytochemical screening nor had efficacy of botanical extracts. Various studies fight against termites, but sampaliya is not included in it.

This study aims to know the substances found in the sampaliya plant that can fight against termites. With the prohibition of the chemicals, which were toxic to humans, termite control is currently centered on the use of non-chemical methods, including biopesticides. Thus, plants with insecticidal properties could be regarded as potential alternatives to chemical pesticides. Indeed, various plants or plant extracts are used to control termites or other insect pests.

B.

Statement of the Problem:

This study seeks to answer the following questions: 1.

What are the phytochemicals present in Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract?

2.

What is the effect of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract as a natural termiticide?

3.

C.

How are termites eliminated by Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract?

Research Objectives

This research aims to: 1.

Conduct phytochemical screening for the leaf extracts of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract.

2.

Identify the phytochemicals present in Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract.

3.

Determine the potential of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract as a natural termiticide.

D.

Statement of Null Hypothesis

1.

There are no chemicals present in Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract.

2.

Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract is not an effective natural termiticide.

3.

Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract will not eliminate termites.

E.

Significance of the Study This study will provide a framework in the evaluation and determination of the the

chemicals present in the plant extract under investigation. If proven effective, this study is beneficial to the following: Government. Under RA 8423, research investigations conducted are regarded as highly beneficial when found to be effective. Research results would contribute to ethnomedical developments that will give essential benefits to people. Community. It is the aim of the researchers that the outcome of this study will be for the welfare of the community. This will inform the community about the benefits of plant extract as a natural termiticide and will gain knowledge as to what components of plant extract are responsible for acting as the termiticide. Researchers. The researchers and other medical courses would benefit from this study since they will be able to know the chemical constituents of the plant extract, its uses, and benefits. The study may also be beneficial to future researchers for the formulation of related studies. The results of this study can be used as a reference for their advanced studies.

F.

Scope and Limitation This study was limited to the Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract and its

termiticidal properties. The sample materials were collected from Tandag City Surigao del Sur. This study will also focus on the determination of the phytochemical contents of the plant extract through phytochemical screening.

G.

Conceptual Framework

INPUT Sampaliya Plant Termites

PROCESS Preparation and collction of Plant Extract B.Pythochemical Screening of sampaliya plant Test the effectivity of plant in Termites

OUTPUT Data analysis of Termites Data Analysis of Sampaliya plant

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE M. charantia is an annual or perennial monoecious climber, 2–3 m height with no hair or slightly hairy. It can be cultivated up to high altitude. Stem: The well-branched, slender, green stem is usually slightly five angled or ridged and carries unbranched tendrils in the leaf axils. Root: The central taproot comes to the apex where the stem spreads to climb. Leaf: The leaf is simple, alternate, rounded rim in 4–12 cm long with 3–7 deeply separated lobes. It is carried singly along the stem on 3–5 cm long stalks. It has an unpleasant smell when crushed. Flower: Male and female flowers are separated with a little different. They have five oval yellow petals 10–20 cm long and five central stamens. Fruit: The orange to yellow pendulous cylindrical fruit is egg shaped and 2–10 cm long, which covered with longitudinal ridges and warts. Seed: The seed is 8–15 mm long black but covered with a soft, flesh white in unripe to red in ripe. Bitter melon is a powerful nutrient-dense plant composed of a complex array of beneficial compounds. These include bioactive chemicals, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which all contribute to its remarkable versatility in treating a wide range of illnesses. The fruits contain high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamins B1, B2 and B3, as well as vitamin B9 (folate). The caloric values for leaf, fruit and seed were 213.26, 241.66 and 176.61 Kcal/100 g respectively. The fruit is also rich in minerals including potassium, calcium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, and is a good source of dietary fiber (bitter melon “monograph”, 2008).

Medicinal value of bitter melon has been attributed to its high antioxidant properties due in part to phenols, flavonoids, isoflavones, terpenes, anthroquinones, and glucosinolates, all of which confer a bitter taste. In a study conducted by Eugenio (2002), the insecticidal activity of ampalaya was proven to be caused by its component flavonoids. Flavonoids have antiviral, antifungal, and antiinflammatory and cytotoxic effect. Kalaichelvi et al., (2006) found out that nicotine, coming from the same family of Momordica charantia, Solanaceae is effective against a variety of pests. It is a contact pesticide with ovicidal effects. It contains 55% alkaloid, 40% nicotine sulfate, and 3% to 5% dusts. The use of synthetic chemical insecticides has been the major means of reducing storage losses due to insect pests (Adiewu and Declan, 2002). Toxicity of chemical insecticides to man, non-target organisms, long-term persistence and environmental pollution is of global concern (Obeng-Ofori, 2007). Many organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are already banned, while the use of some is being restricted (Forget, 1993). Currently, research in pest management focuses on ecofriendly methods for control of insect pests. It has been reported that botanical products breaks down rapidly to harmless metabolites and may less likely to build up genetic resistance in targeted species (Isman and Machial, 2006; Sidawi et al., 2014). This study aimed at evaluating M. charantia for control of C. maculatus in stored cowpea seeds. M. charantia, commonly called bitter gourd is a tropical and sub-tropical herbaceous vine of the family Cucurbitaceae. It is widely grown in South and South East Asia, Africa, China and Caribbean for medicinal and food purposes (Hassanah et al., 2002), M. charantia is a slender annual vine with long-stalked simple and alternate leaves 4-12cm across, and 3-7 deeply separated lobes. Each plant bears separated yellow male and female flowers which produced emerald-green gourdlike fruit that turned

orange-yellow when turned ripe (Hassanah et al., 2002). Previous studies have revealed its antiplasmodial property (Subramaniam et al., 2012), blood sugar-lowering effect (Sridhar et al., 2008), antibacterial activity

against

Escherichia

coli,

Staphylococcus,

Pseudomonas, Salmonella (Makhija et al., 2011). Toxicity, repellent and anti-feeding effects of extracts of M. charantia against some agricultural insect pests and insect of medical importance (mosquito) have been documented (Zhi et al., 2007; Fiaz et al., 2012; Subramaniam et al., 2012; Hameed et al., 2013). However, little is known about insecticidal activity of M. charantia against stored products pests. Previous studies tested leaf powder of M. charantia against C. maculatus and reported some level of efficacy (Boeke et al., 2004; Adesina et al., 2012). This study evaluated the bioactivity of the leaf extracts of M. charantia to C. M. charantia can be grown as a cover crop (for example, under cocoa), but its vigorous vining habit makes it difficult to control. The plant has many medicinal uses, including use as an anthelminthic, purgative and pain reliever, and to treat haemorrhoids, internal parasites and rashes. A seed extract has the capacity to inactivate certain cancerous tumours and may have antileukemic activity; it also helps ameliorate the effects of diabetes mellitus (Holm et al., 1997). Its pharmacological properties have been recently investigated by Zafar and Neerja (1991). Leaves of the plant are brewed in hot water to

create a tea to treat malaria and diabetes. The leaves are allowed to steep in hot water before being strained thoroughly so that only the remaining liquid is used for the tea (Maiti et al., 2012).

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY A.

Research Design

The researchers used the experimental method to demonstrate the phytochemical constituents of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract. This research study will indicate if the plant extract of Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract can inhibit a termiticidal effect. B.

Research Locale All chemicals and reagents to be used will be of analytical grade and will be available

from University of Immaculate Concepcion, Davao City, Philippines. C.

Data Gathering Procedure

Plant collection The plant samples Sampaliya (Momordica charantia L.) plant extract will be collected from different areas of Tandag City, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines. Fresh plant materials will be washed under running tap water, air-dried for a few days, and cut and macerated. .

D.

Flowchart of the study

Plant Collection

Preparation of Plant Extract

Pythochemical screening of plant

Data Analysis

CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL DATA Name: Prince Gabbro L. Abala Nickname: Gab Address: Quintos Emerald Tandag City Sds Birthday: June 15, 2006 Parents: Father: Benny T. Abala Mother: Arlene L. Abala Educational Background Elementary: Special Science Elementary School Bag-ong Lungsod, Tandag City Secondary:

Jacinto P. Elpa National High School, Science Technology and Engineering Curriculum Capitol Hills, Telaje, Tandag City

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Franco Miguel E. Giron Nickname: Franco Address: Capitol Road, Telaje Tandag City Birthday: March 31, 2005 Parents: Father: Mitchell Darwin G. Giron Mother: Cheryl J. Elizalde Educational Background Elementary: Tandag City SpEd Center Secondary:

Jacinto P. Elpa National High School, Science Technology and Engineering Curriculum Capitol Hills, Telaje, Tandag City

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Jammarvic G. Lopez Nickname: Jam Address: La Suerte 1, Dagocdoc, Tandag City Birthday: December 6, 2005 Parents: Father: James S. Lopez Mother: Marivic G. Lopez Educational Background Elementary: Tandag City SpEd Center Secondary:

Jacinto P. Elpa National High School, Science Technology and Engineering Curriculum Capitol Hills, Telaje, Tandag City

June 2019 During the first day of our class, our teacher told us to form a group with 3 members. After making our group our teacher told us to make research paper and create 3 titles and she will decide the best

July 2019 In July we already have our 3 titles and our teacher told us to make rationale for each of the titles. After it we already choose our title and we started to make our Introduction

August 2019 In August we already had our introduction and we are so excited to continue after the introduction. And after making introduction we are so proud for ourselves.

September 2019 In September we finalized our introduction, After it we started to work for our statement of the problem, objectives and significance the study. We had a research how to do those three parts.

October 2019 In November our teacher told us to start making the review of related literature. So we had a research how to make it. While doing it we talked about the beginning of our SIP.

November 2019 Finally we are already done making our review of related literature and we proceed on making our bibliography. Our teacher discussed about it and we had a research on it.

December 2019 On December we started making our chapter three the methodology we made research design, research flowchart, research locale and our conceptual framework.

January 2020 In this month we compile all of the chapter and put in a folder and pass it to our teacher. We are so glad to complete those chapters.

REFERENCES Environmental Toxicology: The Effects of Pesticides on Human Health, Vol. XVIII, S.R. Baker and C>F> Wilkinson, eds Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Scientific. 438pp Huyskens, Jan. Journal of Horicultural: 2015. Kamal, R.Antiradical Efficiency of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants. Jornal of Natural Products 2011, 26(11), 1054-1062.  Khan, M. F., Abutaha, N., Nasr, F. A., Alqahtani, A. S., Noman, O. M., & Wadaan, M. A. M. (2019, July 24). Bitter gourd (momordica charantia) possess developmental toxicity as revealed by screening the seeds and fruit extracts in zebrafish embryos. BMC Complementary Medicine and

Therapies.

Retrieved

from

https://bmccomplementmedtherapies.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-019-2599-0. Jia, S., Shen, M., Zhang, F., & Xie, J. (2017, November 28). Recent advances in Momordica Charantia: Functional components and biological activities. International journal of molecular sciences. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5751158/. Manuel Palada, Lien-Chung Chang. International Cooperators’ Guide AVRDC: Central Philippines: Central Philippines University, 2003. Momordica

charantia

(bitter

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/34678.

gourd).

(n.d.).

Retrieved

from

Midmore, David and Morgan Wendy. Bitter Melon in Australia A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Central Queensland: Central Queensland University, 2002. Prasad, Dahal. Assessment of land cover changes in tropical rain forest using LANDSAT TM images to support sustainable natural production forest management SNPFM in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: abstract: Bangkok, Thailand: Map Asia 2002, 2002. The Agricultural Health Study, National Institute of Environmental Health Services, accessed October 15, 2019, Roonwal, M. L. (1982, January 1). Termite Heterotermes indicola as a pest of the vegetable, Karela or bitter gourd (momordica charantia), in the Indian Desert. AGRIS. Retrieved from https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201302615824. Wilkinson, C.F. 1990. Introduction And overview. Pp. 5-33in Advances in Modern

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our deepest and sincerest appreciation and gratitude to the following people who supported us with regards to our Science Investigatory Project. They are the reason why we fulfilled this successfully. To our very supportive and encouraging parents, for their unconditional love and unending support may it be financially or emotionally as we labored towards this research. To our research adviser, Mrs. Ana Geran Millan for giving us this opportunity and teaching us the additional information we need in doing this research and spending time in guiding us with our work. To our classmates, for their cooperation, and always being there for us when we need their opinions and ideas and for cheering us up in times when we feel down. To Mr. Venchie Badong, for guiding, consulting and forhelping us in improving our research study. And most of all, to our Almighty God, for being our pillar of strength, for the gift of life, knowledge and wisdom and for never leaving us in our journey.

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