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POWER Prepared by: Lorena C Valerio, LPT, DPA
Max Weber, Georage Catlin, Robert A Dahl, Morgenthau etc consider
Power as central to the study of politics.
• Without power, it would be impossible for the government to maintain law and order to pursue policies for social, economic and political development of the country.
An aspect of a relationship between 2 social actors where one actor “A” can induce or influence actor “B” to do something in line with A's preferences when B would not do that otherwise. • Adapted from Robert Dahl
• Five types of power: • • • • •
Force: The Coercive Power Wealth: The Reward Power Expertise: The Expert Power Position: The Legitimate Power Popular Support: The Referent Power
Sources of Power by:French and Raven (1959)
• Force is probably the most easily recognizable source of power. • The follower’s belief that the leader has the power to punish him for noncompliance.
Force: The Coercive Power
• Political sociology - ‘patron-clientelism’. • This is known as reward power and it is based on the follower’s belief that the leader has resources – benefits that will help the follower in reaching his goals and meet his needs.
Wealth: The Reward Power
• Expertise has provided individuals with power and influence. • “Knowledge is power”. • Leader possesses superior information and ability.
Expertise: The Expert Power
• Position in organization is one of the surest avenues to power. • Legitimate power
Position: The Legitimate Power
• Popular support minimizes the need to use coercive power or reward power to obtain compliance to the decision of the government. • Referent power, it is based on the followers’ identification with the leader.
Popular Support: The Referent Power
• Authority is closely associated with power • Authority is formal or legal as distinguished from personal power. • a position: authority is attached to these positions. • roles: the set of patterned expectations about behavior that the members of society attach to a position in an institution.
• • • •
Max Weber: i) Traditional Authority ii) Charismatic Authority iii) Legal-rational Authority
Three types or sources of authority
• Based on ancient customs or traditions or conventions. • For example, Brunei Sultanate (the eldest will be the Sultan), Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands and Spain. • Traditional authority is thus closely tied up with hereditary systems of power and privilege.
• Refers to people’s following a leader because they believe that he or she has extraordinary personal qualities that command their obedience. • For example, political leaders like Mussolini, Hitler and Mao Zedong.
• Based upon acceptance of publicly articulated, society-wide rules and regulations issued by duly authorized public officials. • Hold any position according to the legal procedures.
• Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely… • “We have learned by sad experience that it is the nature and disposition of almost all men, as soon as they get a little authority, as they suppose, they will immediately begin to exercise unrighteous dominion.” D&C 121:39
Human nature and power
• Rule of Law • Separation of Powers • Check and Balances • Create a balance where each, by seeking his own power checks the power of others
POWER AND GOVERNANCE
• Police Power • Eminent Domain • Taxation
• The power of the State to regulate liberty and property for the promotions of the general welfare • The justification is found in the Latin maxims • Salus populi est suprema lex (the welfare of the people is the supreme law) • Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas (so use your property as not to injure the property of others). • Dura lex sed lex (the law is harsh but it is the law)
• • • • •
The purpose of the PP is to serve the general welfare Promote public health Protect Public safety Protect public morals Promote economic security
• Private right vs public interest • Social Justice (Calalang vs Williams) • Was an administrative order phasing out taxi cabs more than 6 years old a valid exercise of police power? • Yes, to protect the riding public (Taxicab Operators vs Board of Transportation)
Limitations on the exercise of Eminent Domain • The property taken must be private property • The taking must be within constitutional sense • The taking must be for public use • Public use which was traditionally understood as strictly limited to actual “use by the public” has already been abandoned. “Public use” has now been held to be synonymous with “public interest,” “public benefit,” and “public convenience.” In Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation v. Department of Transportation and Communications,41 Justice Corona, in his dissenting opinion said that:
• Just compensation must be paid • There must be due process of law
• It is the power to collect a proportionate amount from the people to defray the expenses of the government • Lifeblood theory • Double Taxation – no constitutional prohibition but against excessive taxation. • Additional tax by same taxing jurisdiction during the same period and for the same purpose.
Power of Taxation
• Juan, paid an occupational tax of P25,000 to the BIR and is required to pay P10,000 by the city of Manila where he is working. Can he refused to pay such taxes on the ground of double taxation? • No, taxes are imposed by different authority
Power and Citizenship
• Civil Citizenship – individual rights and freedom • Political Citizenship – participation and political power of the citizens • Social Citizenship – rights and responsibilities of the citizens
Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. (Article 2, 1987 Const)
• Obligation • Accountability • Responsibilities – Legal and Moral
Responsibility and Accountability
• Abuse of authority • Abuse of discretion • Abuse of power • Corruption • Graft
Responsibility and Accountability